Because many art skills are built upon over time, and because each student isn’t guaranteed to take art each year of middle school, there’s a fair amount of repetition in the curriculum–for example, each grade level does a color wheel, and I introduce different design elements and different media for each so it’s not too repetitive for students who did take art the previous year. Likewise, each grade level learns to use value to model form.
Sixth grade starts simply, with solid 3D forms. We start by learning how to create value scales, how light travels around a form, and how and why value works to create the illusion of form. I set up still lifes with spotlights on each table, and students draw and shade the forms from observation, striving for accuracy in their contours and proportion and to attain the full range of values in their shading.
Seventh grade also starts with value scales and reviewing (or introducing, depending on the students’ experience) the concept of light and value. Each student then creates a small sculpture using paper strips (a great way to use up the odds and ends of white drawing paper that inevitably accumulate around the paper cutter), and then draws his or her sculpture from observation.
The contours on these can be really tricky! It’s a great task to improve students’ spatial reasoning skills. Their compositions are required to touch all 4 edges of the page.
Finally, students shade their drawings to make them appear 3-dimensional, using the full range of values to create depth.
By eighth grade, I hope to have taught students at least once (in sixth or in seventh), so they have a good foundation in value to model form. But there’s no guarantee that I have, so this project accommodates newcomers as well!
After creating value scales and learning about value, students prepare their drawing surfaces by adding a layer of newsprint to activate the negative space and create interest.
We open the next session by discussing composition, and I give them a few useful guidelines:
- Activate negative space
- Establish an off-center area of emphasis (focal point)
- Use rhythm & variety
- Touch all 4 edges of the picture plane
After a quick chat about how the drawing mannequins are simply not interested in each other in that way, each student gets his or her own mannequin to pose (in a manner that preserves its innocence) and draw from observation. After a few practice sketches in their journals, students move to their prepared newsprint surfaces to create their final compositions, keeping the guidelines in mind.
We create value using charcoal pencils (a new medium for most students), including white charcoal to develop the highlights on the gray paper.
And there you have it–value 3 ways! This has proven to be a great, flexible sequence that accommodates and challenges learners at every level of experience while giving everyone a strong technical drawing foundation to build upon.